Painting 101: Decorative Paint Training

Session 4: Paint Systems

What is Paint Systems?

A paint system is a planned sequence of coatings which are applied to a surface to give it protection, etc. where a single coating would be inadequate. Each coating used in the system provides its own special qualities which collectively provide the total protection, etc. to the substrate. No single paint coating can provide every quality required. Paint Systems consist of primers, undercoats and finishes.

Primers: or priming paints are the first paints applied to any new substrate and like the foundation of a house support all the paints which come over them. They must be selected with care for this reason and their functions are:-

a) Satisfy the absorbency of porous substrates like plaster, asbestos, wood
b) Stick tightly to smooth, dense substrates like galvanized iron & plastics
c) Slow down corrosion to acceptable levels on mild steel, etc.
d) Bind down loose, friable substrates such as old lime-wash.
e) Form a chemical-resistant barrier over active plaster, asbestos, etc.
f) Provide good adhesion for undercoats and finishes

Wall Primers
Crown Plus 3 Masonary Primer
: A white, alkali-resistant primer which can be over-coated with both oil and water-based finishes. It is the most suitable primer for curing masonry defects especially efflorescence. It is best applied by brush to achieve maximum adhesion but can be applied by roller due to the large areas usually involved. It forms a chemical resistant barrier between the substrate and the subsequent oil-based coatings which are not alkali resistant. It should be overcoated within 72 hours to provide maximum “key” for the undercoat

Crown Universal Alkali-Resisting Wall Primer: An off white primer designed to seal new and unpainted (dry) plaster, cement, concrete, brick and hard asbestos sheets, etc., before applying undercoat and oil finishes. Should not be used for priming loosely bound or porous surfaces for which Crown Penetrating Primer is recommended.

Crown Penetrating Primer: Similar in most aspects to Alkali Resisting Wall Primer except it contains very little pigment and dries to a fairly glossy finish with good alkali resistance, penetration and adhesion. Formulated to bind down loose, crumbly plasters and over old, cement paints, distemper, lime-wash coated surfaces to form a solid foundation for subsequent paints. It can be overcoated with both oil-based and water-based paints. It is also sometimes used as a substitute for Alkali Resistant Primer where opacity is not a prerequisite and is best applied by brush to gain maximum penetration into the substrate and thus bind down the loose particles on the surface.

Wood Primers
Crown Aluminium Wood Primer: A matt, metallic grey primer for application to the interior and especially exterior new and bare, hard and soft woods and timber treated with non-bituminous based wood protection. It has good penetration, excellent adhesion and minimizes the risk of blistering. Supplied ready for use and can be applied by brush, roller or spray and has a good spreading rate up to 15m2/l.

Crown White Wood Primer: A white primer with good flexibility, penetration and sealing qualities, which tends to be slow drying and may need 36 hours before overcoating. Formulated for use on all Exterior and Interior woodwork such as barge boards, fascia boards, timber claddings, strip ceilings, doors, cupboards, skirtings and cover strips made of soft woods, plywood and chipboards, block board, chipboard and plywood etc. Ready for use after stirring it is normally applied by brush, dries to a slight sheen and provides a good foundation for undercoats and finishes. Extra attention should be paid to end grains and back edges of timber when priming as they are most susceptible to moisture ingress and must be sealed entirely by the primer.

Crown Sanding Sealer: A clear nitrocellulose based primer with very rapid drying and good sanding properties. It is mainly used by furniture manufacturers to satisfy the porosity of wood prior to finishing with Woodseal or single pack PU varnish. Its main asset is its speed of drying which allows more coats to be applied in a shorter period of time and thus speeds up completion of the job.

Metal Primers
One Pack Etch Primer (Wash Primer): A single pack, the yellow quick-drying primer for structural steelwork and galvanized iron surfaces, hard polished alloys, smooth ferrous and non-ferrous metals etc. to provide limited protection against corrosion during the fabrication period and maximum adhesion. It should be coated with a conventional rust-inhibiting metal primer within a month, particularly in coastal regions. Touch dry in just 20minutes and recoatable within 1hour, it can be applied by brush or spray and can give spreading rates of up to 20m2/l.

Crown Red Oxide (Pre-Fab) Primer Glossy or Matt Primer: An economical primer with moderate protective qualities, formulated for use on exterior and interior metal objects in mild environmental conditions. It can be applied by brush, roller or spray and dries to a glossy or matt finish. The former is recommended when a period of weeks/ months is likely to lapse before overcoating and the later if overcoating is to take place more or less immediately. For maximum protection of exposed steelwork, particularly in coastal regions and mining or industrial areas, the use of Crown Zinc Phosphate/ Chromate Primer is recommended.

Crown Zinc Phosphate Primer: A white or light grey, primer with excellent corrosion inhibition, adhesion & flexibility and dries to a matt finish which provides good adhesion for undercoats and finishes. It is formulated for use on steelwork such as gates, burglar bars, etc in mild to harsh environments such as mines, industrial and coastal areas. Being completely lead-free, Crown Zinc Phosphate Primer is non-toxic and can be safely used as a primer for galvanized and mild steel drinking water tanks and for general use in food factories, bottling plants etc. It is mainly applied by brush or roller but can be sprayed after minimal thinning.

Crown Zinc Chromate Metal Primer: Similar in most aspects to Zinc Phosphate primer but this one is available in yellow or red oxide colour and hence is not recommended for lighter colours. Zinc Chromate Primer is not recommended for application to new, un-weathered galvanized iron. However, galvanized surfaces that have been allowed to weather or which have been treated with an Etch Primer can be coated with Zinc Chromate Primer.

Crown Alkali Resisting Chlorinated Rubber Wall Primer: An off-white chlorinated rubber-based, quick-drying (4hrs), non-flammable and nontoxic primer designed for use on new (dry) plaster, cement rendering, concrete, brick, stone and asbestos cement sheeting, prior to the application of Chlorinated Rubber Finish.

Crown Chlorinated Rubber Zinc Phosphate/ Chromate Primer: A chlorinated rubber-based, quick-drying (4hrs), non-flammable and nontoxic primer designed for use on metals prior to the application of Chlorinated Rubber Finish.

Crown Two-Pack Epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer: A light grey, 2 pack corrosion, water, chemical & solvent resistant primer with excellent adhesion on a variety of properly prepared surfaces. Suitable for use under Chlorinated Rubber and 2 Pack Epoxy finishes. It can be applied by brush, roller or spray to give a matt finish with exceptional topcoat hold-out. Base and hardener MUST be mixed in the correct ratio prior to application.

Crown Two-Pack Epoxy Zinc Chromate Primer: Similar to 2-pack epoxy Zinc Phosphate Primer in most aspects but available in red oxide colour.

Crown Two-Pack Epoxy Zinc Rich Primer: A metallic grey 2-pack primer incorporated with zinc metal powder which offers maximum corrosion resistance on bridges, pylons, industrial buildings etc, especially in coastal regions and damp and humid climatic conditions when used with the appropriate chemical resistant finishes. The high metallic zinc powder content gives sacrificial protection to blast cleaned steelwork. Suitable for coating welded areas between joined galvanized sheets and for patching defects in galvanized surfaces, being in effect, brush applied galvanizing. It has a low spreading capacity of 5-8 m2/l at 40µm dry film thickness.

Undercoats: are coatings sandwiched between the primers and the finishes, or the coats applied to old, sound paintwork before re-finishing, when primers are unnecessary. Undercoats are used to provide –

a) Opacity or obliteration of the substrate.
b) Protection because of their thickness
c) Adhesion for the finish.
d) A good foundation when changing from water to oil based finish and vice-versa
e) Reduce the number of expensive topcoats when changing from a dark colour to a light colour

Crown Undercoat: A white, oil-based paint with excellent obliteration/ hiding and thickness required for filling minor surface irregularities. It dries to a semi-matt finish which provides good adhesion for subsequent coatings. It is used over suitably primed wood, metal, plastics, galvanising and plasters, concrete etc. on both exterior and interior surfaces when changing from oil-based to water-based finish and vice-versa. Applied by brush or roller or spray. The spreading capacity is up to 13-15m2/litre, normally only 1 coat is applied although 2 coats will give an improved finish.

Crown Acrylic Primer Sealer/ Undercoat: A quick-drying (1-2hours), water-based, matt general-purpose primer/ undercoat for timber and untreated hardboard prior to the application of Silk, Super Gloss, and Eggshell Enamel etc. Can be applied by brush, roller or spray and supplied ready for use but can be thinned to spray viscosity with clean water. Available in white only but customer-specific colours can be supplied by prior arrangement for large housing projects etc.

Finishes/ Topcoats: are the final or top coats applied to the surface either over an undercoat, primer or over a previously applied finish which is in good condition. Finishing coats are used to provide:-

a)Protection against weather, abrasion, chemicals, etc.
b)The desired colour.
c)The desired texture, i.e. Gloss, Matt, Sheen

Water-Based Finishes

Economy Vesta Emulsion: A low-cost interior coating which dries to a matt finish. Available in white and 8 selected colours, it has very poor washability and fades on exposure and hence is recommended for use on interior surfaces which don’t require cleaning at all. 2-4 coats are normally required.

Covermatt Emulsion: A water-based alkali-resistant coating which dries to a matt finish. Available in white and 12 selected colours. It has slightly better washability and durability compared to EVP. It is recommended for use on interior surfaces which don’t require regular cleaning. 2 – 3 coats produce a solid, opaque finish on most surfaces. It has also found use as a primer for alkali surfaces to be finished in water-based paints and as an economical ceiling paint.

Covermatt +2 Emulsion: Water-based, alkali resistant and dries to a matt finish. Available in white and 18 colours as per Solo Colourchart. Its washability is limited to mild sponging with soapy water as hard rubbing will remove the coating. Designed primarily as an ideal ceiling paint where it is highly cost-effective, potentially saving material and labour costs. Also used on Interior plaster, concrete, cement and asbestos walls and ceilings where frequent cleaning is not a prerequisite e.g., adults bedrooms. Can be used on exterior surfaces where there is minimal cleaning and minimal exposure to sunlight e.g., verandahs. 2 – 3 coats are normally applied to all new substrates to achieve the desired opacity.

Matt Emulsion: A high quality permeable, alkali resistant, dries to a matt finish. It is incorporated with special additive to give extremely high stain resistance which allows minimum to nil penetration of the normal house hold items like tea, coffee, juice etc, which are easily scrubbed off with soapy water. Available in a wide colour range, is highly washable and can be used on Exterior and Interior plaster, concrete, cement, wood and asbestos substrates where its improved washability and wear is called for. 1-2 coats are normally applied to new substrates to achieve the desired opacity. It is not recommended for Exterior use in coastal regions where Permaplast, Permacote & Sandtex Exterior smooth is better.

Permacote : Top of the range, Interior/ Exterior finish with special biocides to resist and greatly retard mould & algae growth and incorporated with special additive to give excellent stain resistance which allows minimum to nil penetration of the normal house hold items like tea, coffee, juice etc, which are easily scrubbed off with soapy water. Relatively expensive, it is permeable, alkali resistant, dries to a matt finish and has a high spreading capacity (up to 17m2/l) which compensates for the additional initial cost. Available in a wide colour range. Extremely washable, it is used for plaster, concrete and cement, Interior/ Exterior walls where wear and tear are expected and where a matt finish is desired. 1-2 coats are normally applied over a primed surface.

Permaplast Emulsion: A hardwearing exterior paint which is more up-market in cost and performance and is permeable, light fast, alkali resistant, dries to a low sheen finish and is available in a wide range of colours. Its washability is excellent and is formulated for use on hard-wearing exterior plaster, cement, concrete and asbestos where these qualities are called for. 1 – 2 coats are normally applied to new substrates to achieve the desired opacity.

Silk Vinyl Emulsion: A high-quality interior emulsion paint with a fashionable silky finish which is extremely tough and washable. Ideal for use in kitchens, bathrooms, stores, wash rooms and passages and recommended for use in hospitals, food processing areas etc. In addition to plaster, stone etc, Crown Silk Vinyl can be used on timber and is particularly suitable for use in office complexes on wallboards/partitioning etc. 1 – 2 coats are normally applied to new substrates to achieve the desired opacity.

Medicryl Silk Sheen Emulsion: Crown Medicryl Silk Emulsion is an interior premium quality anti-bacterial waterborne paint which provides a subdued sheen finish. It has been independently TESTED and APPROVED by IMSL UK (Industrial Microbiological Services Ltd. It is fast drying (1 -2 hours), has a low odour and is totally safe for use in public buildings like nurseries, bathrooms, wash rooms, schools, hospitals, restaurants, hotels, food courts, kitchens and other areas of high traffic and high sanitation to prevent growth of bacteria and fungi. It is especially resistant against Escherichia Coli & Staphylococcus Aureus bacteria. It is suitable for new and previously painted plaster, concrete, wood; partitions etc. 1-2 coats are normally applied to new substrates to achieve the desired opacity.

Crown Transeal Acrylic Emulsion: A versatile water-based product with a white opaque appearance in the container, but produces a clear semi-gloss film after application designed for interior use and should not be applied to exterior surfaces subjected to strong sunlight. The sheen level can be varied by the amount of water added; increased thinning will reduce the sheen level. Transeal can be applied to unpainted concrete, brick, stone etc, to produce an attractive, semi-gloss clear finish which will be more dust-resistant and more easily cleaned than the bare substrate. Transeal can also be applied over matt emulsion paint to produce a semi-gloss finish or over wallpapers to render them more washable. An attractive finish can be obtained by applying Transeal to quarry tiles prior to the application of wax polish.

Crown Tennis Court Paint: A water-based matt finish designed especially for use on concrete floor screeds on areas to be used for tennis and badminton courts, basketball, gymnastics etc. Available in green for the playing surface and copper for use on concrete areas surrounding the playing area. Line markings can be painted in Crown Road Marking Paint. Brush application is recommended. Re-coatable in 4 hours and will cover 8-10 m2/l when applied on good wood float floor screeds and 5m2/l on tar surface.

Oil-Based Finishes

Crown Super Gloss Enamel: An extremely hard, durable, smooth, flexible coating that dries to a high gloss finish. Relatively expensive (compared to water-based) and available in a wide range of colours it can be applied by brush, roller or spray. Formulated for both Exterior and Interior use on suitably primed and undercoated wood, metal, plastics, galvanising and to a more limited extent on plasters, cement, concrete, etc. Its main use, however, is on exterior substrates where its weather resistance and durability are called for whilst the use on interior plasters is limited due to the fact that it is not very decorative and tends to highlight unsightly plaster defects and white tends to yellow when used on dark places like cupboards. The spreading rate is up to 15m2/l and for interior use 1 coat is normally applied as a finish but for external use 2 coats are recommended.

Crown Eggshell Enamel: An interior semi-gloss, smooth and hard finish designed for use on properly primed walls in corridors, reception areas, canteens and high traffic areas where exceptional resistance to wear, dirt and steam is necessary because of its good washability, hardness and decorative finish which is more attractive than high gloss finishes on interiors where specula reflection is not normally desired. It can be applied by brush or roller or spray to suitably primed wood, plastics and metal. Eggshell is designed for Interior use only as it will not withstand exterior exposure. Its spreading capacity is up to 15 m2/l and 1 or 2 coats are applied to achieve a good finish.

Crown Schoolboard Paints: Available in black and green only and dries to a matt surface suitable to receive chalk. Highly pigmented, it must be well stirred initially and intermittently during use due to the tendency of the pigment to settle out in the base of the tin. It can be applied by brush or roller and two thin coats should be applied to suitably primed boards as thick coatings tend to produce a more glossy finish which does not receive chalk well. It has a spreading capacity of about 9 -10 m2/litre and the matt finish makes legibility on a school board much easier to read.

Crown GP Matt Finish Black: Available in black only but can also be supplied in Dark Green and White and dries to a matt decorative surface. Highly pigmented, it must be well stirred initially and intermittently during use due to the tendency of the pigment to settle out in the base of the tin. Can be applied by brush or roller and has a spreading capacity of about 9 -10 m2/litre.

Crown Chlorinated Rubber Paint: A hardwearing, chemical resistant, non-toxic, extremely durable and scrubbable finish for use in laboratories, chemical factories, breweries, dairies, food factories and bottling plants, hospitals, clinics, swimming pools, plastered walls, metals, wood etc. Available in a wide colour range and dry in 1-2 hours. Has a spreading capacity of about 6 -11m2/L. It is NOT solvent resistant and so should not be used where there are solvent splashes.

Crown Squash Court Paint: An extremely hardwearing, durable, smooth, oil-based finish specially designed for use on squash courts. The satin finish designed to restrict glare and is suitable for application on all playing surfaces. Unlike the emulsion paints and Chlorinated Rubber paint, which are highly thermo plastic and tend to hold the ball, thereby slowing the game, Squash Court paint conforms to the requirements of the British Squash Rackets Association. It is available in Off-White colour and can be applied by roller, spray or brush.

Crown Economy Oil Based Paints: These are a range of paints introduced to satisfy the demands of the lower end of the market as they are relatively inexpensive and of a reduced quality compared to premium quality products. Their spreading capacities may be similar to the premier range but their opacities are lower which means that extra coats must be applied to achieve the same results. They have similar finishes, drying times, methods of application and uses as premium paints but have a lower degree of durability and lower prices.

Vesta Regal Primers (Red Oxide and Grey Oxide). Economy Vesta Gloss is available in white, black and a limited range of colours. Economy Undercoat is also available.